Expand the knowledge in a fundamental area of science and engineering which is Thermodynamics.
Capacity of search and use of bibliography, to organize a coherent body of information on this area of knowledge.
Capacity of problem solving, including the development of the required mathematical competences.
Capacity to implement, perform and analyze the results of simple experiments related with the unit contents.
Contribution to the increase of general scientific culture, motivating to study other areas where Thermodynamics has important applications.
Competence in information management
Competence in critical reasoning
Competence in practical application of theoretical knowledge
Competence in analysis and synthesis
Attention to quality
Competence in oral and written communication
Knowledge of a foreign language
Competence on problem solving
1 - Fundamental concepts
Thermodynamic systems and variables. Thermodynamic processes and equilibrium. State equation and internal energy equation.
2 - Law zero
Temperature. Thermal equilibrium. Thermometers and temperature scales. Fixed points. Kelvin scale. Water triple point. Microscopic concept of temperature. Volume expansion and isothermal compressibility coefficients.
3 - First law
Work and heat. Thermal capacities at constant pressure and volume. Enthalpy. Internal energy of perfect gases. Energy equipartition. Heat transfer processes. Phase transitions.
4 - Second law
Cyclic heat machines. Carnot cycle. Entropy. Clausius theorem. Reversible and irreversible cycles. Thermodynamic's fundamental relation. Helmholtz and Gibbs functions. Thermodynamic potentials. Maxwell relations. Principles of maximal entropy and minimal internal energy.
5 - Third law
Formulations of Nernst and Planck.
General Physics I, General Physics II; Mathematical Analysis I, Mathematical Analysis II
Generic skills to reach
. Competence in information management; . Competence to solve problems; . Competence for working in group; . Competence in applying theoretical knowledge in practice; . Competence in analysis and synthesis; . Competence in organization and planning; . Competence in oral and written communication; . Critical thinking; . Competence in autonomous learning; (by decreasing order of importance)
Teaching hours per semester
total of teaching hours
Sseminar or study visit
Laboratory or field work
Synthesis work thesis
assessment implementation in 20202021 Assessment Midterm test ? 100%. Exam ? 100%: 100.0%
Bibliography of reference
1. M.W. Zemansky e R.H. Dittman, Calor e Termodinâmica Ed. Guanabara Dois, Rio de Janeiro (1978).
2. F.W. Sears e G. L. Salinger, Termodinâmica, Teoria cinética e Termodinâmica Estatística Ed. Guanabara Dois, Rio de Janeiro (1978).
3. J. Guémez, C. Fiolhais e M. Fiolhais, Fundamentos de Termodinâmica do Equilíbrio, Serviço de Educação da Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian (1998), Lisboa.
Lectures presenting the main concepts, with the right approach to this unit.
Lectures to discuss and solve problems aiming to connect the studied concepts with practical examples, as thermal machines and estimations of physics quantities specific to the area of Thermodynamics.
Laboratory classes where the students apply the theoretical concepts in simple experiments.
Support of the students individual effort in the search of theoretical and experimental information, and in its systematic analysis.
- Data show, projector de slides. - Laboratório de Termodinâmica, equipado.