Radiations in Biomedicine - EB

Ano letivo: 2016-2017
Specification sheet

Specific details
course codecycle os studiesacademic semestercredits ECTSteaching language

Learning goals
1- To acquire basic knowledge on Nuclear Physics, namely to know to characterize the nuclear decay modes and nuclear collisions and reactions kinematic and energetically.

2- To know to caracterize the processes of interaction of radiation with matter and the radiation detectors most used in Nuclear Medicine.

3- To acquire competences on solving problems (analytical and computationally) in the topics mentioned above (i.e. basic nuclear physics, processes of interaction of radiation with matter and radiation detection, in particular detectors for gamma radiation).

4-To carry out experiments of nuclear physics and radiation detection, in particular gamma-ray detection and spectroscopy, to analize, interpret and present the results.

5- To know how to write a report on the results of an experiment.
I - Basic concepts of Nuclear Physics

1. Atomic nucleus.
2. Binding energy and the Weizsäcker formula.
3. Radioactive decay law.
4. Radioactivity: alpha, beta, gamma, electron capture and internal conversion decay; energetic aspects, partial and total half-lives
5. Collisions and nuclear reactions.

II - Radiação Ionizante

1. Sources: radioisotopes, X-ray tubes and sincrotron radiation
2. Interaction of ionizing radiation with matter
2. 1. Energy loss of a heavy particle in matter: Bethe-Bloch expression
2.3. Energy loss of electrons - atomic collisions and bremstrahlung
2.4. Range of particles
2.3. Photon interactions

3. Radiation detectors.
3.1. Types of detectors and performance parameters
3.2. Ionizing chambers, proportional counters and Geiger counters
3.4. Scintillators and photodetectors. Gamma spectroscopy.

III- X-rays sources and their spectra

IV - Medical imaging techniques using ionizing radiation.
Basic knowledge of physics and mathematics
Generic skills to reach
. Competence in analysis and synthesis;
. Competence to solve problems;
. Critical thinking;
. Competence in autonomous learning;
. Competence in applying theoretical knowledge in practice;
. Competence in organization and planning;
. Competence in oral and written communication;
. Competence in information management;
. Competence for working in group;
. Self-criticism and self-evaluation;
(by decreasing order of importance)
Teaching hours per semester
theory-practical classes30
laboratory classes15
total of teaching hours75

Laboratory or field work15 %
Mini tests15 %
Exam70 %

Bibliography of reference
Intermediate physics for medicine and biology, Russell K. Hobbie, 3rd ed, New York : Springer-Verlag, 2001.

Keneth Krane, Modern Physics, John-Wiley &Sons, New-York 1996 (2nd ed.)

Herman Cember, Introduction to Health Physics, McGraw Hill, NY. 2009 (4th ed)

Medical imaging physics, Hendee WR e Ritenou ER , Wiley-Liss, NY (4th ed., 2002)

Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering B.H. Brown et al., IOP 1999.

Ervin B. Podgorsak, Radiation Physics for Medical Physicists, Springer (2005)
Teaching method
The theoretical lectures aim to demonstrate and explain concepts, methods and their applications. In these classes it is stimulated the understanding and integration of the acquired knowledge.

In the practical classes the students solve problems, individually or in small groups, in which they apply the knowledge acquired in the theoretical classes. The resolution of the problems and their results are discussed by all students together with the teacher.

In the laboratory classes, the students carry out laboratory experiments on phenomena and methods studied in the theoretical lectures.
Resources used
Laboratório de Física Nuclear com experiências que envolvam a utilizam de várias fontes radioactivas e diferentes tipos de detectores e sistemas de aquisição associados.
Equipamento audiovisual.